The Hope Project focuses on measuring hope, taking its versatility and diversity into account. We use on the one hand insight from the long history of thinking about hope in Western culture and on the other hand the latest insight from psychology, sociology, economics and philosophy.


In recent years several scientific articles have been published by The Hope Project. These articles are currently in Dutch, but more will be added, also in English.


Historical and Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Hope

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Hope Barometer Rapportages

Report The Hope Barometer 2019

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Hope Barometer Rapportages

Report The Hope Barometer 2018

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Publication of book ‘Driven by Hope’

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Much has been written about the meaning, determinants and effects of hope, by philosophers, poets, artists and scientists. Here, we have collected some of the sources that have influenced this project.

Atlan, Monique, and Roger Pol-Droit. L’espoir a-t-il un avenir? Paris: Flammarion, 2016.

Dalferth, Ingolf U. Hoffnung. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016.

Eagleton, Terry. Hope without Optimism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2015.

Ellul, Jacques. L’Espérance oubliée. Paris: Gallimard, 1979. Reprinted by La Table Ronde, Paris, 2007. Translated by David Gill as Hope in Time of Abandonment. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2012.

Lutz, R. Der hoffende Mensch: Anthropologie und Ethik menschlicher Sinnsuche. Francke: Tu?bingen, 2012

Marcel, G. (1962). Homo viator: introduction to a metaphysic of hope. (E. Craufurd, Trans.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Martin, Adrienne M. How We HopeA Moral Psychology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Mittleman, A. Hope in a democratic age philosophy, religion, and political theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Moltmann, Ju?rgen. Ethics of Hope. Translated by Margaret Kohl. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2012.

Moltmann, Ju?rgen. Theology of Hope: On the Ground and the Implications of a Christian Eschatology. Translated by James W. Leitch. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1967.

Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. E. P. Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Sacks, Jonathan. Future Tense: Jews, Judaism, and Israel in the Twenty-first Century. New York: Schocken Books, 2009.

Seligman Martin E. P., and Jane Gillham. The Science of Optimism and Hope: Research Essays in Honour of Martin E. P. Seligman. Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press, 2000.

Scioli, Anthony & Henry Biller. Hope in the Age of Anxiety. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009

Scruton, Roger. The Uses of Pessimism and the Danger of False Hope. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Snyder, Charles R., ed. Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measure, and Applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2000.

Volf, Miroslav and William H. Katerberg (eds). The Future of Hope: Christian Tradition Amid Modernity and Postmodernity. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004.

Wright, N. (2009). Surprised by Hope: Rethinking Heaven, the Resurrection, and the Mission of the Church. New York: HarperOne.

Alarcon, Gene M., Nathan A. Bowling and Steven Khazon (2013). Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of optimism and hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(7): 821-827.

Aspinwall L.G. & S.L. Leaf (2002). In Search of the Unique Aspects of Hope: Pinning Our Hopes on Positive Emotions, Future-Oriented Thinking, Hard Times, and Other People. Psychological Inquiry 13(4): 276-321.

Avey, James B., Rebecca J. Reichard, Fred Luthans and Ketan H. Mhatre (2011). Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2): 127-152.

Bailey, Thomas C., Winnie Eng, Michael B.Frisch and C. R. Snyder (2007). Hope and optimism as related to life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2:3, 168-175.

Ciarrochi, Joseph, Philip Parker, Todd B. Kashdan, Patrick C.L. Heaven and Emma Barkus (2015). Hope and emotional well-being: A six year study to distinguish antecedents, correlates, and consequences. The Journal of Positive Psychology 10(6): 520-532.

Cheung, F. (2015). Can Income Inequality be Associated With Positive Outcomes? Hope Mediates the Positive Inequality-Happiness Link in Rural China. Social Psychological and Personality Science 7(4): 320-330.

Cotton Bronk, K., P.L. Hill, D.K. Lapsley, T.L. Talib and H. Finch (2009) ‘Purpose, Hope, and Life Satisfaction in Three Age Groups’ The Journal of Positive Psychology 4(6): 500-510.

Halama, Peter (2010). Hope as a mediator between personality traits and life satisfaction. Studia Psychologica 52(4): 309-314.

Howell, Andrew J., Thomas Bailie and Karen Buro (2015). Evidence for Vicarious Hope and Vicarious Gratitude. Journal of Happiness Studies 16(3): 687-704.

Luthans, F. and S.M. Jensen (2002) ‘Hope: A New Positive Strength for Human Resource Development’, Human Resource Development Review 1(3): 304-322.

Lybbert, Travis J. and Bruce Wydick (2015). Poverty, Aspirations, and the Economics of Hope.

Martin, Adrienne M. (2011). Hopes and Dreams. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research LXXXIII(1): 148-173.

Ong, A., L.M. Edwards and C.S. Bergeman (2006). Hope as a source of resilience in later adulthood. Personality and Individual Differences 41(7): 1263-1273.

Ouweneel, E., P.M. Le Blanc, W.B. Schaufeli and C.I. van Wijhe (2012) ‘Good Morning, Good Day: A Diary Study on Positive Emotions, Hope, and Work Engagement’, Human Relations 65(9): 1129-1154.

Ozag, David (2005). The relationship between the trust, hope, and normative and continuance commitment of merger survivors. Journal of Management Development 25(9): 870-883.

Proyer, R.T., W. Ruch and C. Buschor (2013) ‘Testing Strengths-Based Interventions: A Preliminary Study on the Effectiveness of a Program Targeting Curiosity, Gratitude, Hope, Humor, and Zest for Enhancing Life Satisfaction’, Journal of Happiness Studies 14(1): 275-292.

Reichard, R.J., J.B. Avey, S. Lopez and M. Dollwet (2013) ‘Having the Will and Finding the Way: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Hope at Work’, The Journal of Positive Psychology 8(4): 292-304.

Rustøen, T., B. Cooper and C. Miaskowski (2010). The Importance of Hope as a Mediator of Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction in a Community Sample of Cancer Patients. Cancer Nursing 33(4): 258-267.

Schrank B., G. Stanghellini and M. Slade (2008). Hope in psychiatry: a review of the literature. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavia 118: 421-433.

Schrank, Beate, Andreas Woppmann Mag, Ingrid Sibitz and Christoph Lauber (2010). Development and validation of an integrative scale to assess hope. Health Expectations 14: 417-428.

Scioli, Anthony; Michael Ricci; than Nyugen and Erica R. Scioli (2011). Hope: its Nature and Measurement. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 3(2): 78-97.

Snyder, C.R. (2000). The past and possible futures of hope. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 19(1): 11-28.

Shorey, H.S., C.R. Snyder, X. Yang and M.R. Lewin (2003). The role of hope as a mediator in recollected parenting, adult attachment, and mental health. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 22(6): 685-715.

Tennen, Howard, Glenn Affleck and Ruth Tennen (2002). Clipped Feathers: The Theory and Measurement of Hope. Psychological Inquiry 13(4): 311-317.

Tong, Eddie M. W., Barbara L. Fredrickson, Weining Chang and Zi Xing Lim (2010). Re-examining hope: The roles of agency thinking and pathways thinking. Cognition and Emotion 24(7): 1207-1215.

Tong, E.M.W. (2015). Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals. Cognition and Emotion 29(3): 484-503.

Yalç?n, ?., & Malkoç, A. (2015). The relationship between meaning in life and subjective well-being: Forgiveness and hope as mediators. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), 915-929.

Yang, Y. m. Zhang and Y. Kou (2016). Self-compassion and life satisfaction: The mediating role of hope. Personality and Individual Differences 98: 91-95.